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Attributes of Mixed Type

  • A database may contain all attribute types
    • Nominal, symmetric binary, asymmetric binary, numeric, ordinal
  • One may use a weighted formula to combine their effects

\[ d(i,j) = \frac{\sum_{f=1}^{p} \delta _{ij}^{(f)} d_{ij}^{(f)}}{\sum_{f=1}^{p} \delta _{ij}^{(f)}} \]

    • f is binary or nominal:
      • dij(f) = 0 if xif = xjf , or dij(f) = 1 otherwise
    • f is numeric: use the normalized distance
    • f is ordinal
      • Compute ranks rif and
      • Treat zif as interval-scaled
\[ z_{if} = \frac{r_{if}-1}{M_{f}-1} \]

Speaker notes:

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