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### Normalization

**Min-max normalization**: to [new_minA, new_maxA]

\[ v^{'}=\frac{v-min_{A}}{max_{A}-min_{A}}(newmax_{A} - newmin_{A})+ newmin_{A} \]

- Ex. Let income range $12,000 to $98,000 normalized to [0.0, 1.0]. Then $73,000 is mapped to

\[ \frac{73,600-12,000}{98,000-12,000}(1.0 - 0)+ 0 = 0.716 \]

**Z-score normalization**(μ: mean, σ: standard deviation):

\[ v^{'} = \frac{v-\mu_{A}}{\sigma _{A}} \]

- Ex. Let μ = 54,000, σ = 16,000. Then

\[ \frac{73,600-54,000}{16,000} = 1.225 \]

**Normalization by decimal scaling**

\[ v^{'} = \frac{v}{10^{j}} \]

Where *j* is the smallest integer such that Max(|ν’|) < 1

**Speaker notes:**

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