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A vector can be (length-) normalized by dividing each of its components by its length – for this we use the L2 norm:
Dividing a vector by its L2 norm makes it a unit (length) vector (on surface of unit hypersphere)
Effect on the two documents d and d′ (d appended to itself) from earlier slide: they have identical vectors after length-normalization.
Long and short documents now have comparable weights
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