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Classical logic is monotonic in the following sense: whenever a sentence A is a logical consequence of a set of sentences T, then A is also a consequence of an arbitrary superset of T .
Additional information may invalidate conclusions.
Non-monotonic reasoning is closer to (human) common-sense reasoning.
Most rules in common-sense reasoning only hold with exceptions (i.e. university_professors_teach)
Important approaches to formalise non-monotonic reasoning:
Default-Logics: Non-classical inference rules are use to represent defaults
The modale approach: Modal operators are used to explicitely declare if sth. is believed in or is consistent.
Circumscription: Validity can be restricted to specific models.
Conditional approaches: A conditional junctor is used to represent defaults in a logical language.
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