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  • It is possible to represent everything you want in propositional logic

    • But often this is not very efficient

  • Basic idea : A proposition is expressed as predicate about (on or more) objects in the world

  • Propositions are predicates and arguments

    • I.e. Car(Mercedes Benz).

  • The most immediate way to develop a more complex logical calculus is to introduce rules that are sensitive to more fine-grained details of the sentences being used

    • When the atomic sentences of propositional logic are broken up into terms, variables, predicates, and quantifiers, they yield first-order logic , which keeps all the rules of propositional logic and adds some new ones

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