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\[ d(i,j)=\frac{pm}{p} \]
\[ d(i,j)=\frac{r+s}{q+r+s} \]
\[ sim_{Jaccard}(i,j)=\frac{q}{q+r+s} \]
\[ z=\frac{x\mu}{\sigma } \]
\[ m_{f}= \frac{1}{n}(x_{1f}+x_{2f}+...+x_{nf}) \]
\[ z_{if}=\frac{(x_{if}m_{f})}{S_{f}} \]
where i = (xi1, xi2, …, xip) and j = (xj1, xj2, …, xjp) are two pdimensional data objects, and h is the order (the distance so defined is also called Lh norm)
\[ d(i,j)=\sqrt{(x_{i1}x_{j1}^2+x_{i2}x_{j2}^2+...+x_{ip}x_{jp}^2)} \]
\[ r_{if} \epsilon \left \{ 1,...,M_{f} \right \} \]
\[ d(i,j) = \frac{\sum_{f=1}^{p} \delta _{ij}^{(f)} d_{ij}^{(f)}}{\sum_{f=1}^{p} \delta _{ij}^{(f)}} \]