Open education handbook in slides
What is open?
- A piece of data or content is open, as defined by the Open Definition, “if anyone is free to use, reuse, and redistribute it — subject only, at most, to the requirement to attribute and/or share-alike.”
- In open education, for a resource to be open, it must be both gratis and free/open.
- gratis means one must be able to access the educational resource at no cost
- free/open means one must have the legal rights to reuse, revise, remix and redistribute the resource and/or adaptations of the resource.
- Further discussion:
What is education?Education involves a wide range of activities. The core processes of formal education:
- policy at a national through institutional level on how institutions are run
- administration , dealing with recruitment, admissions, retention, progression, graduation, timetabling, reporting, and so on;
- teaching , including mentoring and all non-instructivist activities around the deliberate nurturing of knowledge;
- learning , which may be the only necessary activity here;
- assessment , summative, formative and diagnostic;
- accreditation , saying and recognizing who learnt what.
Academic and business topics that inform or influence these processes:
- management studies,
- library functions,
- Human Resource functions such as recruitment and staff development.
What is open education?
- is a collective term that is used to refer to many practices and activities that have both openness and education at their centers
is first and foremost about removing barriers to education
- removing entry requirements (Open University)
- making content and data freely and legally available for reuse
reflects other cultural changes, such as the move to open up learning methods and practices
- blurring or removal of traditional roles such as teacher and student
- moving towards roles such as mentor and learner
- Open University's Open Learn Open Education MOOC .
- Why Open Education Matters videos - winning entries of the Why Open Education Matters video competition
- The Capetown Open Education Declaration
- The Hewlett Foundation's white paper on Open Educational Resources (pdf)
- UNESCO's portal to Open Educational Resources
History of open education
- started as public library movement in the 19th century
- continues with institutions like the Open University in the UK
- Open Education Timeline - the interactive online timeline created by the Open Education Working Group
- Intro to Openness in Education - a course by David Wiley for the School of Open
- OER - a historical perspective by David, Kernohan and Amber, Thomas (2012)
Is traditional education not open?
- Both traditional and Open education are not open to all
- Traditional education did not strive to be open to all
- Not all initiatives within open education are currently open to all, but inclusivity (or more accurately, equality) is core to open education.
- Traditional vs. Open Education - Discussion from FOTE conference
Impact of Open education on education
The full effect of open education is yet to be seen:
- cultural shift that is needed for open education to reach its potential will take time
- open education is still in its infancy
- The Jisc OER Impact Study (November 2010 - June 2011, University of Oxford) concluded that OER's main impact factors are pedagogic, attitudinal, logistical and strategic
- The OER Research Hub research will be reported in forthcoming years
- The paper, notes significant adoption hurdles to OER, including discoverability, quality control, failure to organise and acquisition.
- The Battle for Open - a perspective by Martin Weller
Benefit from open education
Organisations, groups and individuals benefit from open education.These include:
- Education institutions - both Higher Education (universities) and schools - see Benefits and Challenges of OER for Higher Education Institutions (Commonwealth of Learning)
- Students - see Open Educational Resources: Benefits for Faculty and Students (MIT)
- Informal learners and the general public - access to those who previously had no access to educational materials, resources and practices (MOOCs)
- Benefits of openness in education - wiki for Open Education Summit 2012
Conferences about open education
- OpenEd conference – Annual conference held in US, currently the biggest Open education conference in the world.
- Helsinki Learning Festival – To be held for the first time in 2014: Innovation, play and global sharing.
- Online Educa – Annual global elearning conference held in Berlin.
- Inaugral International Conference on Open and Flexible Learning (ICOFE) – Annual event held last year in Hong Kong.
- OER14 conference – fairly new conference held in the UK, focused on OER.
- OCWC Conference – Held in the US and organised by the Open Courseware Consortium.
- International Conference of the African Virtual University – This year was the first year this conference ran, held in Kenya.
- Mozilla Festival – Annual event usually held in London, lots of teaching and learning activities related to web.
- Pan-Commonwealth Forum on Open Learning – Annual event organised by the Commonwealth of Learning, held in Africa.
- OKFest – The Open Knowledge Foundation Festival – this year open education is likely to an important area.
- Wikimania - Annual conference centered on Wikimedia projects with tracks dedicated to education, free culture, open data, and more.
Events for open education
Open Educational Resources (OERs)
Open educational resources
- liberally licensed stuff for use in education
- teaching, learning, and research materials in any medium that reside in the public domain or have been released under an open license that permits their free use and re-purposing by others (Hewlett definition)
- freely accessible, openly licensed documents and media that are useful for teaching, learning, educational, assessment and research purposes (Wikipedia)
Open Educational Resources meet the “4Rs Framework,” meaning that users have free access and all of the legal rights necessary to:
- Reuse: Content can be used in its unaltered form;
- Revise: Content can be adapted, adjusted, modified or altered;
- Remix: The original or revised content can be combined with other content to create something new;
- Redistribute: Copies of the content can be shared with others in its original, revised or remixed form.
- Jisc InfoKit provides an excellent introductory guide (What are open educational resources? Jisc InfoKit).
Types of OER
By level of interactivity with users:
By content format:
- Text led
- Video led
- Animation led
- Multiple media
Useful OER resources/handbooks
Benefits of OER for an educator
The reusage of existing OERs helps you to:
- free up time
- expand your range of teaching materials
- find additional sources for students
- encourage students to refer to and cite teaching materials
- encourage students to be educators and start experimenting with learning and teaching materials.
The creation of own OERs helps you to:
- raise your profile
- improve the quality of your materials by collaborative work
- improve your practice by encouraging you to reflect
- find people interested in and teaching/learning the same areas as you.
- look outside your immediate environment and get broader and different views on topic areas.
- learn new stuff which will reinvigorate your teaching.
Benefits of OER for an institution
Benefits of OER for a learner
History of the OER movement
Usage of OERs
Searching for OERs
Quality of OERs
Releasing own OERs
Benefits of releasing your own OER
Misperceptions about Copyright
Deciding to Create OER
Development of OERs
Challenges when developing OERs
Software for making OERs
OER: Best Practices
Do open educational resources have to be online?
Open resources and open formats
European OER use cases
Worldwide OER use cases
Books about OERs
Groups of people or individuals interested in OER
Ideas that stretch the idea of OER
OERs and developing world
Main discussion topics around OERs
Creating of OER and ownership
Fair dealing/use and OER
Current opportunities and challenges of OERs
Searching for MOOCs
MOOC and OER
Types of MOOCs
Open Learning and Practice
Open learning and practice
Examples of open learning and practice methods
Challenges of open learning and practice
Open Educational Practices
Open Education vs Open Learning
OERs vs OEPs
History of open badges
Benefits of open badges
Challenges of using open badges
Open badges use cases
- Open policies require access to, and open licensing of, resources financed through public funding.
- Policy is defined broadly as legislation, institutional policies, and/or funder mandates.
- Open policy may refer to content (such as OERs) or data.
- Foundations and education systems may also create open policy.
Policy relating to open education
Policies usually apply either to K-12 education or to higher education - there are no examples of unified policies spanning all levels of education:
- International policies: These are adopted by intergovernmental organizations and are usually not binding for its members. The most important such policy now in force is the UNESCO OER Declaration
- National policies: Currently no country in the world has adopted a comprehensive policy concerning open education or open educational resources. However, many governments have required open licensing for the educational outputs of certain programs, eg. the U.S. Department of Labor's $2 billion TAACCCT program requires CC BY on all educational outputs
- Regional policies (for example, state-level policies): In several countries, policies have been introduced by state governments. Examples of such policies is the Bill HB 2337 “Regarding open educational resources in K-12 education”, passed by the Senate of the State of Washington
- Funders mandates can be seen as specific types of policies that apply to funding programs of charitable organizations. They are important in themselves, but also set standards for other, public policies.
See the OER Policy Registry for examples of OER policies.
Convincing policy makers about open education
Convincing policy makers requires making:
- a business case for open education - how 21st century legal and technical tools can be used to significantly improve the effectiveness of investments in publicly funded resources.
- a social case for open education - how taxpayer-funded educational resources should be available for all to use, and the human right to education.
Support for open policy work
Open education dataOpen education data =
- all open data that can be used for educational purposes (e.g research data, GLAM data etc.)
- open data that comes out of education institutions
Other terms: Open education data, open educational data, open data in education, open data exploited/used by education
Benefits of open data in education
- New tools, enriching resources, exploration, informed choices
Supporting schools and institutions
- Learning analytics, improve efficiencies, benchmarking
Supporting governments and policy
- Change in policy, transparency, education reform
Types and categories of open data relevant to education
Benefits to Institutions of opening up data
- The charitable mission of education can be helped through a commitment to open data.
- Help educators and institutions to engage with learners more effectively and in better ways.
- There is a role of data openness and exchange in driving quality research.
- Openness can become part of the identity of an institution.
- Education institutions are subject to freedom of information, open research data policy, key information Sets, student number controls and widening participation data.
- Opening up data could save time - no need for central collection.
- Internal usage of data can inform decisions and practice.
- Business intelligence - from corporate data through to learner analytics - market strategy, online learning pedagogies.
Creating open data
Guidance on creating open data is available in the Open Data Handbook.
The main recommendations are to:
- Keep it simple. Start out small, simple and fast.
- Remember this is about innovation.
- Engage early and engage often.
- Bear in mind your audience. Much of the data will not reach ultimate users directly, but rather via ‘info-mediaries’. These are the people who take the data and transform or remix it to be presented.
- Apply an open license.
- Make the data available - in bulk and in a useful format. You may also wish to consider alternative ways of making it available such as via an API.
- Make it discoverable - post on the web and perhaps organize a central catalogue to list your open datasets.
Impact for schools in developing world
Open data can help identify gaps in the availability of education and provide simple solutions that can be delivered through the existing education system. In order to achieve this you need a robust analytical culture that demonstrates the impact of its work.
Main issues: Supply vs Demand
Education open data technology
Common open data technologies:
- CSV, XML, Linked Data
- Common Data Management
- Common tracking tech.
- Logs, analytics platform
- Specific metadata standards
- XCRI, MLO, LRMI, LOM, ...
Education open data use cases
- The EU LinkedUp Project is running a series of competitions in which developers built tools that analyse and/or integrate open web data for educational purposes. They already have a number of use cases.
- Data.ac.uk: tools and services developed for UK Universities http://www.data.ac.uk/helpful-tools-and-information
Open Data Challenges
- Open Education Challenge: Funded by EU. Invitation to all innovators to submit projects, receive mentoring and seed funding through the European Incubator for Innovation in Education, and get direct access to investors from day one. Looking for the 10 most promising startups. Events in Barcelona, Paris, London, Berlin and Helsinki.
- Open Data Challenge: One in a series of seven challenge prizes designed to generate innovative and sustainable solutions to social challenges using open data - organised by the Open Data Institute, UK. Looking for teams to create products and solutions using open data to help parents make informed choices about their children’s education. Using open data relating to the UK education system.
Additional resources on educational open data
- LinkedUniversities: http://linkeduniversities.org
- LRMI - The Learning Resource Metadata Initiative (LRMI): http://www.lrmi.net/
- LAK data challenge: http://lak.linkededucation.org
LUCERO project - Linking University Content for Education and Research Online:
XCRI - eXchanging Course Related Information:
- Which? University: http://university.which.co.uk/
The Global Partnership for Education:
Conferences on open data in education
- LAK Learning Analytics and Knowledge: http://lakconference2013.wordpress.com
- ARIADNE/GLOBE Convening: http://www.ariadne-eu.org/content/open-federations-2013-open-knowledge-sharing-education
- Annual OpenEd Conference: http://openedconference.org/2013/
- Linked Learning: http://lile2013.linkededucation.org/
- OKFest: http://2014.okfestival.org
- Open data dialog: http://open-data.fokus.fraunhofer.de/
- International World Wide Web Conference: http://www2014.kr/
Open data in education community
Impact on developing world
- Open data can help identify gaps in the availability of education
- It can provide simple solutions that can be delivered through the existing education system.
Case study: Uganda
- In Uganda the government allocated funding for schools, but corruption at various levels meant much of the money never reached its intended destination.
- Between 1995 and 2001, the proportion of funding allocated which actually reached the schools rose from 24% to 82%.
Active in this area:
- Facebook Customer Service
- How do I block a website link on my account ?