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Open education handbook in slides



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Introduction




What is open?

  • A piece of data or content is open, as defined by the Open Definition, “if anyone is free to use, reuse, and redistribute it — subject only, at most, to the requirement to attribute and/or share-alike.
  • In open education, for a resource to be open, it must be both gratis and free/open.
    • gratis means one must be able to access the educational resource at no cost
    • free/open means one must have the legal rights to reuse, revise, remix and redistribute the resource and/or adaptations of the resource.
  • Further discussion:


What is education?

Education involves a wide range of activities. The core processes of formal education:
  • policy at a national through institutional level on how institutions are run
  • administration , dealing with recruitment, admissions, retention, progression, graduation, timetabling, reporting, and so on;
  • teaching , including mentoring and all non-instructivist activities around the deliberate nurturing of knowledge;
  • learning , which may be the only necessary activity here;
  • assessment , summative, formative and diagnostic;
  • accreditation , saying and recognizing who learnt what.

Academic and business topics that inform or influence these processes: 

  • politics,
  • management studies,
  • pedagogy,
  • psychology,
  • philosophy,
  • library functions,
  • Human Resource functions such as recruitment and staff development.


What is open education?

  • is a collective term that is used to refer to many practices and activities that have both openness and education at their centers
  • is first and foremost about removing barriers to education
    • removing entry requirements (Open University)
    • making content and data freely and legally available for reuse
  • reflects other cultural changes, such as the move to open up learning methods and practices
    • blurring or removal of traditional roles such as teacher and student
    • moving towards roles such as mentor and learner
Further information:


History of open education

  • started as public library movement in the 19th century
  • continues with institutions like the Open University in the UK

Detailed information:



Is traditional education not open?

  • Both traditional and Open education are not open to all
  • Traditional education did not strive to be open to all
  • Not all initiatives within open education are currently open to all, but inclusivity (or more accurately, equality) is core to open education. 

Further discussion:

 


Impact of Open education on education

The full effect of open education is yet to be seen:

  • cultural shift that is needed for open education to reach its potential will take time
  • open education is still in its infancy

However:

  • The Jisc OER Impact Study (November 2010 - June 2011, University of Oxford) concluded that OER's main impact factors are pedagogic, attitudinal, logistical and strategic
  • The OER Research Hub research will be reported in forthcoming years
  • The paper, notes significant adoption hurdles to OER, including discoverability, quality control, failure to organise and acquisition.

Other resources:



Benefit from open education

Organisations, groups and individuals benefit from open education.These include:

Further discussion:




Conferences about open education

 


Events for open education

 


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Open Educational Resources (OERs)




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OERs: Basics




Open educational resources

OER definitions:

  • liberally licensed stuff for use in education
  • teaching, learning, and research materials in any medium that reside in the public domain or have been released under an open license that permits their free use and re-purposing by others (Hewlett definition
  • freely accessible, openly licensed documents and media that are useful for teaching, learning, educational, assessment and research purposes (Wikipedia)

Open Educational Resources meet the “4Rs Framework,” meaning that users have free access and all of the legal rights necessary to:

  • Reuse:  Content can be used in its unaltered form;
  • Revise: Content can be adapted, adjusted, modified or altered;
  • Remix: The original or revised content can be combined with other content to create something new;
  • Redistribute: Copies of the content can be shared with others in its original, revised or remixed form.

Further information:




Types of OER

By level of interactivity with users:

By content format:

  • Text led
  • Video led
  • Animation led
  • Multiple media 


Useful OER resources/handbooks



Benefits of OER for an educator

The reusage of existing OERs helps you to:

  • free up time
  • expand your range of teaching materials
  • find additional sources for students
  • encourage students to refer to and cite teaching materials  
  • encourage students to be educators and start experimenting with learning and teaching materials.

The creation of own OERs helps you to:

  • raise your profile
  • improve the quality of your materials by collaborative work
  • improve your practice by encouraging you to reflect 
  • find people interested in and teaching/learning the same areas as you.
  • look outside your immediate environment and get broader and different views on topic areas.
  • learn new stuff which will reinvigorate your teaching.

Other resources:

 


Benefits of OER for an institution



Benefits of OER for a learner



History of the OER movement



Usage of OERs



Searching for OERs



Quality of OERs



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Releasing own OERs




Benefits of releasing your own OER



Misperceptions about Copyright



Deciding to Create OER



Development of OERs



Publishing OERs



Challenges when developing OERs



Software for making OERs



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OER: Best Practices




Do open educational resources have to be online?



Open textbooks



Open courseware



Open resources and open formats



European OER use cases



Worldwide OER use cases



Books about OERs



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OER Movement




Groups of people or individuals interested in OER



Ideas that stretch the idea of OER



OERs and developing world



Main discussion topics around OERs



Creating of OER and ownership



Fair dealing/use and OER



Current opportunities and challenges of OERs



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MOOCs




MOOCs



Searching for MOOCs



MOOC and OER



Types of MOOCs



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Open Licenses




IPR



Licences



Open licences



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Open Learning and Practice




Open learning and practice



Examples of open learning and practice methods



Challenges of open learning and practice



Open Educational Practices



Open Education vs Open Learning



OERs vs OEPs



OEP practioners



Open Learner



Open Practioner



Open assessment



Open accreditation



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Open Badges




Digital badges



History of open badges



Open badges



Benefits of open badges



Challenges of using open badges



Open badges use cases



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Open Policy




Open policy

  • Open policies require access to, and open licensing of, resources financed through public funding.
  • Policy is defined broadly as legislation, institutional policies, and/or funder mandates.
  • Open policy may refer to content (such as OERs) or data.
  • Foundations and education systems may also create open policy.



Policy relating to open education

Policies usually apply either to K-12 education or to higher education - there are no examples of unified policies spanning all levels of education:

  • International policies: These are adopted by intergovernmental organizations and are usually not binding for its members. The most important such policy now in force is the UNESCO OER Declaration 
  • National policies: Currently no country in the world has adopted a comprehensive policy concerning open education or open educational resources. However, many governments have required open licensing for the educational outputs of certain programs, eg. the U.S. Department of Labor's $2 billion TAACCCT program requires CC BY on all educational outputs 
  • Regional policies (for example, state-level policies): In several countries, policies have been introduced by state governments. Examples of such policies is the Bill  HB 2337  “Regarding open educational resources in K-12 education”, passed by the Senate of the State of Washington
  • Funders mandates can be seen as specific types of policies that apply to funding programs of charitable organizations. They are important in themselves, but also set standards for other, public policies.

See the  OER Policy Registry  for examples of OER policies.



Convincing policy makers about open education

Convincing policy makers requires making:

  • a business case for open education - how  21st century legal and technical tools can be used to significantly improve the effectiveness of investments in publicly funded resources.
  • a social case for open education - how  taxpayer-funded educational resources  should be available for all to use, and the human right to education.



Support for open policy work



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Open Data




Open education data

Open education data =
  • all open data that can be used for educational purposes (e.g research data, GLAM data etc.)
  • open data that comes out of education institutions

Other terms: Open education data, open educational data, open data in education, open data exploited/used by education



Benefits of open data in education

Supporting students

  • New tools, enriching resources, exploration, informed choices

Supporting schools and institutions

  • Learning analytics, improve efficiencies, benchmarking

Supporting governments and policy

  • Change in policy, transparency, education reform


Types and categories of open data relevant to education



Benefits to Institutions of opening up data

Principle

  • The charitable mission of education can be helped through a commitment to open data.
  • Help educators and institutions to engage with learners more effectively and in better ways.
  • There is a role of data openness and exchange in driving quality research.  
  • Openness can become part of the identity of an institution.

Policy

  • Education institutions are subject to freedom of information, open research data policy, key information Sets, student number controls and widening participation data.

Practice

  • Opening up data could save time - no need for central collection.
  • Internal usage of data can inform decisions and practice.
  • Business intelligence - from corporate data through to learner analytics - market strategy, online learning pedagogies.