2 Pages: 12


  • DIP
    • Introduction 
    • DIP Framework
    • DIP Architecture
    • DIP demonstrators
    • Introduction 
    • SUPER Omtology Stack
    • SUPER Architecture
    • SUPER Methodology Framework
    • Demo/video
  • seekda
    • Introduction
    • seekda! connect product
  • Summary
  • References


  • http://dip.semanticweb.org/

DIP – Introductory Demo/Video

DIP overview


DIP overview




  • Let’s consider a client that want to go on holiday.
  • The client describes the holiday on her/his own terms
    • Blue sky, white sand beach, clear water 

  • Available services: weather, hotel, travel services

  • DIP platform acts as a broker
  • To fulfil user request, DIP discovers, selects, composes and invoke services
  • DIP provides personalized applications on the fly, from available services

DIP objectives

  • Combine Semantic Web technology with Web Services for Semantic Web Services
  • Apply Semantic Web Services as an infrastructure in real world scenarios within an organization and between organizations and its customers/partners.
  • Make Semantic Web Services technology a reality.

DIP – Overall Framework

WSMO – Web Service Modelling Ontology

WSML – Web Service Modelling Language

WSMX – Web Service Execution Environment

Web Service Modeling Ontology (WSMO)

Web Service Modeling Language (WSML)

  • WSML Variants - allow users to make the trade-off between the provided expressivity and the implied complexity on a per-application basis

Web Service Execution Environment (WSMX)

  • … is comprehensive software framework for runtime binding of service requesters and service providers,
  • … interprets service requester’s goal to
    • discover matching services,
    • select (if desired) the service that best fits,
    • provide data/process mediation (if required), and
    • make the service invocation,
  • … is reference implementation for WSMO,
  • … has a formal execution semantics, and
  • … is service oriented, event-based and has pluggable architecture 
    • Open source implementation available through Source Forge,
    • based on microkernel design using technologies such as JMX.

DIP Architecture

DIP Architecture – Components

  • Core component
    • Managing exchange of messages between components
  • Communication manager
    • Handles all external communications
  • Parser
    • Parse WSML content of incoming messages into WSMO4j
  • Discovery
    • Find Web services matching supplied Goals
  • QoS Discovery
    • Find and order service on the basis of QoS parameters
  • Process Mediator
    • Handle mismatches client and service choreographies

DIP Architecture – Components (cont')

  • Data Mediator
    • Handle mismatches between ontologies
  • Choreography Engine
    • Execute behaviour described by a choreography
  • Orchestration Engine
    • Execute the composition defined by an orchestration
  • Resource Manager
    • Persist WSMO and operational data
  • WSML Reasoner
    • At the heart of the architecture

DIP Architecture - behavioural view

Emergency Weather Planning

  • Winter 2003 - weather chaos in southern England due to 1cm of snow.
  • People spent more than 20 hours blocked on motorways
  • In an emergency situation, relevant information is needed to assist planning and decision making.
  • Such information elements range from demographic data, weather forecasts and sensor data, available transportation means to the presence of helpful agents (people), etc.
  • Different agencies own different relevant data and emergency related knowledge, which needs to be shared with the other partners during an emergency.


  • eMerges is a decision support system that assists the Emergency Office in the tasks of retrieving, processing, displaying, and interacting with relevant information, more quickly and accurately
  • Using eMerges governmental agencies are able to extend their knowledge about the emergency situation they are dealing with by making use of different functionalities based on data held by other agencies which otherwise might not be accessible to them or slow to obtain.

eMerges Ontologies

  • Archetypes ontology provides very high level abstractions (e.g. container, house, agent, etc.) to which entities from the real world have to be mapped
  • HCI ontology maps an object to its particular representation. For example some interfaces need “pretty names” selecting a feature to privileged display (e.g. on hovering on the object);

Generic Application Structure

Generic Application Structure (cont')

  • Legacy System layer: consists of existing data sources and IT systems provided by each of the involved governmental parties
  • Service Abstraction layer: exposes the functionalities of the legacy systems as Web services, abstracting from the hardware and software platforms of the legacy systems. Whenever a new service is available at this layer, it will be semantically described and properly linked to existing semantic descriptions.
  • Semantic Web Service layer: given a goal request this layer, will 
    • discover a candidate set of Web services, 
    • select the most appropriate, 
    • mediate any mismatches at the data, ontological or business process level, and
    • invoke the selected Web services whilst adhering to any data, control flow and Web service invocation requirements
  • Presentation layer: is a Web application accessible through a standard Web browser.

eMerges User Interface


eMerges Prototype Architecture

DIP – eMerges Demo/Video


  • http://www.ip-super.org/

SUPER – Introductory Demo/Video


  • SUPER = Semantics Utilized for Process management within and between Enterprises (SUPER)
  • The major objective of SUPER was to raise Business Process Management (BPM) to the business level, where it belongs, from the IT level where it mostly resides now. 
  • This objective requires that BPM is accessible at the level of semantics of business experts

Business Process and Business Process Management

  • “A business process or business method is a collection of related, structure activities or tasks that produce a specific service or product for a particular customer or customers.”
  • “Business process management (BPM) is a management approach focused on aligning all aspects of an organization with the wants and needs of clients. It is a holistic approach that promotes business effectiveness and efficiency while striving for innovation, flexibility, and integration with technology”

Business process in a company

  • Business Processes
    • ... drive all company‘s activities 
    • ... represent the core assets of a company
    • ... give decision makers control over the company’s activities
    • ... deliver services faster and more efficiently to the customer
    • ... allow a company to react to changing market conditions

The critical Business / IT Divide

  • SUPER approach to address the critical Business / IT Divide

SUPER – How Semantics Help

  • Semantic technology improves the utility of BPM by creating a semantic "glue" between different layers, artefacts and models
  • Links between business artefacts help to keep the "big picture" and to improve the overall understanding of complex relationships and interdependencies
  • By unifying the vocabulary and explicating differences in a structured way, semantics support the understanding of business people and technicians

SUPER – Scientific objectives

  • Construction and assessment of technological framework for Semantic Business Process Management (SBPM)
  • Acquiring new generic languages suited for representation of processes, different  process models and goal description having in mind all aspects of system behaviour (e.g. costs, dependencies, constraints, other data flows, time limitations)
  • Creation of automated annotation techniques of already existing BPs, their fragments,  IT components, etc
  • Development of process query tools
  • Adjustment existing reasoners to the specific needs of SUPER
  • Elaboration of industrial-strength mediation procedures for automated coupling between business and IT perspectives
  • Augmentation of SWS foundations on the basis of new experiences obtained from their deployment to large-scale test environments

SUPER – Technical objectives

  • Building horizontal ontologies in aim to annotate both complete BPs and their fragments
  • Assembling vertical ontologies for the chosen implementation domain
  • Complete inventory of tools supporting every stage of SBPM

SUPER Ontology Stack

SUPER Ontology Stack (cont')


SUPER Ontology Stack (cont')

Business Domain Ontologies

  • Business Functions Ontology – describes functions carried out within the company (e.g. marketing, finance, HR
  • Business Process Resources Ontology – describes tangible and abstract resources required
  • Business Roles Ontology – roles in the organization (e.g. Designer, Process Modeler, IT Expert, CEO)
  • Business Modeling Guidelines Ontology – generic business policies and rules for domains like law, finance, etc.

SUPER Ontology Stack (cont')

SUPER Ontology Stack (cont')

  • Upper-Level Process Ontology (UPO) represent high-level concepts for Business Process Modelling. It is the top-level ontology in SUPER, used as the unifying ontology for other ontologies
  • Business Process Modelling Ontology (BPMO) represent high-level business process workflows. BPMO has a bridging purpose between the business level and the execution level of processes
  • Semantic Event-driven Process Chains notation Ontology (sEPC) aims to support the annotation (automatic or semi-automatic) of process models created with EPC tools

SUPER Ontology Stack (cont')

SUPER Ontology Stack (cont')

  • Semantic Business Process Modeling Notation Ontology (sBPMN) formalises the core subset of BPMN graphical notation
  • Semantic BPEL Ontology (sBPEL) extends the BPEL ontology with a SWS based interaction model.
  • Behavioral Reasoning Ontology (BRO) allows for reasoning over the behaviours of business processes using WSML axioms
  • Events Ontology (EVO) is a reference model for capturing logging information utilised both by the execution engines (SBPELEE and SEE) and by the analysis tools

SUPER Architecture

SUPER Architecture (cont')

  • The central component of the architecture is the Semantic Service Bus (SSB) which provides a communication infrastructure for the SUPER components. Components communicate over the bus by sending and receiving normalized messages.
  • SUPER Tooling comprises tools to support different phases of the Semantic Business Process (SBP) lifecycle:

    • SBP Modeling Tool - used during the design time for SBP modeling

    • SBP Monitoring and Management Tool provides an up-to-date picture over the SBP and Semantic Web services (SWS) execution state and provides simple management functionality

    • SBP Analysis Tool is used for Process Mining and Reverse Business Engineering (RBE) purposes

  • SUPER Repositories are used for storing artefacts which are produced, utilized and exchanged by the the SUPER components

    • SBP Library stores artefacts which are created during process modelling, i.e. process models, process fragments, and process mediators

    • SWS Repository stores artefacts related to Semantic Web services

    • Execution History stores the audit trail of the executed process instances

SUPER Architecture (cont')

  • SUPER Platform Services comprise the basic services which provide their functionalities for all SUPER tools and components
    • Transformation Services translate among different formats of SUPER artifacts

    • SBP Mediation resolves heterogeneity problems between different business processes

    • Data Mediation is responsible for handling ontology level heterogeneitie

    • SBP Composition combines services and processes in order to implement activities of the process, where activities can be implemented by one or more services

    • SBP Discovery finds SBP candidates fulfilling criteria specified as WSMO Goals

    • SBP Reasoner provides process behavioural logic-based inference engine capable of reasoning with SUPER ontologies

  • SUPER Execution comprise two execution environments/engines:

    • Semantic BPEL Execution Engine is a BPEL 2.0 compliant process engine, which supports the extensions of BPEL4SWS and is integrated into the Semantic Service Bus (SSB)

    • Semantic Execution Environment (SEE) enables discovery, selection, mediation, invocation and interoperability between Semantic Web services (SWS). SEE is a middleware operating on WSMO descriptions enabling flexible interaction between Service Requesters and Service Providers

SUPER Methodology Framework

 The SUPER methodology is a set of phases, methods and techniques to perform activities using SUPER technologies. Like a traditional BPM methodology, the SUPER methodology owns a proper business process “life cycle”, that is enriched with the semantic connotation of the overall SUPER framework.


Semantic Business Process Modelling

  • Semantic Business Process Modelling (SBPM) is the first step of the SUPER Life Cycle
  • SBPM is concerns with a streamlined, comprehensive, and easy- to-use representative model of the real enterprise business processes
  •  Development of the Business Processes 
  • Model based on the Business Process 
  • Modelling Ontology (BPMO)
  • Use of a Semantic Process 
    Modelling Environment
    • WSMO Studio
    • Integrated BPMO Editor

Example: TID Prototype

TID Modelling – Demo/Video


Benefits of SUPER Modelling

  • Business Process Modelling Notation (BPMN) independence (BPMO representation)
  • Discovery of existing Business Processes exploiting the semantic information
    • Search on specified Business Function, Domain and Patterns
    • Search on specified Business Goals, KPIs and Business Rules
  • Automatic validation and simulation of the BPM
  • Better readibility of models through a clear semantic

BPMO Editor Demo/Video

Semantic Business Process Configuration

  • Semantic Business Process Configuration (SBPC) is the second phase of the SUPER SBP Life Cycle. It uses the outputs of the SBP Modeling phase and provides inputs for the third phase, the Semantic Business Process Execution
  • During this phase Modelled Business 
  • Processes are configured

Semantic Business Process Configuration (cont')

Semantic Business Process Configuration steps:

  • Derive sBPEL from BPMO
    • This step enables the translation from the BPMO instance (coming from the SBP Modeling phase) to an sBPEL ontology
  • Search for possible SWS
    • This step consist in discovery of SWS. Even if the services will be executed in the SBP Execution phase, an early service discovery could be extremely useful to reduce the effort of the service selection before the execution

Semantic Business Process Configuration (cont')

  • Examine potential data mismatches
    • In this step data have to be examined to identify potential data mismatches.
  • Define data mappings and mediatiors
    • If potential data mismatches are identified in the previous step interface mappings and data mediators have to be created
  • Validate and refine the process
    • In this step the process is validate and potentially refined. The validation is seen as a sort of “compiler” that checks the correctness of the semantic process description before the execution of the process.

Semantic Business Process Execution

  • Modeled and configured Semantic Business Processes are executed
  • Execution history for SBP Analysis is produced
  • Automates business activities
  • Minimizes time-to-offer
  • Supports
    • Execution of semantic BPEL processes (BPEL4SWS)
    • Discovery and execution of Semantic Web Services (SWS)

Semantic Business Process Execution Scenario

Semantic Business Process Execution Scenario (cont')

  • Step 1: A user initiates the semantic BPEL process by sending a service request through the Semantic Service Bus to Semantic BEPEL Execution Engine (SBPELEE ).
  • Step 2: SBPELEE delegates the invocation of SWS to Semantic Execution Environment (SEE) by passing the WSMO Goal to it. 
  • Step 3: SEE queries the SWS repository to discover the desired SWS.
  • Step 4: SEE invokes the selected SWS.
  • Step 5: SEE returns the result of “Achieve Goal” to SBPELEE.
  • Step 6: After the process execution has been finished, the result is returned to the user.
  • During the execution, execution events are published to Execution History for persistence and to the Monitoring Tool for tracking process executions.

Example: Nexcom Customer Order Management Process


Benefits from SUPER SBP Execution

  • Nexcom Use case requirements addressed by the SUPER SBP Execution phase
    • Supplier matching supported by Semantic Web Service discovery and invocation from within semantic business processes
    • Allows for more flexible traffic routing
    • Automates supplier matching and traffic routing process taking into account all existing suppliers
    • Minimizes time-to-offer

SBP Execution Demo/Video

Semantic Business Process Analysis

  • Analysis of executed processes
  • Support of various analysis goals
    • Overview over process usage
    • Detect business exceptions
    • Detect technical exceptions
    • Compare As-Is with To-Be
  • Analysis methods
    • Semantic Process Mining
    • Semantic Reverse Business Engineering

Semantic Reverse Business Engineering (RBE)

Scenario based analysis with predefined content to ensure continuous business improvement
  • As-Is-Analysis
    Provide details and statistics about executed processes
  • Exception analysis
    Focus on business exceptions (deviation from the standard processes) 
  • Standardisation & Harmonisation
    Check compliance of processes between organisational units or with predefined guidelines
  • User & Role analysis
    Check user and role behaviour and authorizations

Scenario Based Analysis

Scenario Based Analysis

  • The business user who wants to perform a specific analysis needs to select the relevant business questions (BQ). If we had just a few questions, this operation could be performed manually. But since we deal with a rich set of BQs, we need a smarter way to select them. 
  • Therefore the business user has just to select the relevant concepts within the SUPER ontologies (e.g., he wants to perform an exceptional analysis, within the sales processes)
  • In this way, the analysis tool is able to automatically select the BQs annotated with those concepts.
  • These Business Questions are either directly executed on the execution history repository or “brought” to the process mining environment.

    This is dependent on the question. Some business questions can directly be answered (RBE approach), some business questions can only be answered using process mining.

  • Once the respective queries (either triggered by the Business Question repository directly or by the Process Mining environment) are executed on the Execution history repository the query results are formatted and aggregated for the business user.

Analysis Results

  • Get overview about system usage
  • Find out exceptions within process flow
  • Check conformance to defined Process model
  • Find bottlenecks
  • Get basis information to apply 6-sigma methodology

SBP Analysis Demo/Video

SUPER Demo/Video

  • Untitled


  • Mission: development and marketing of trendsetting, internet-based web services
  • Core Competence: Commercialization of Web Services
  • Business activities: automated locating, creating and structuring of new business models, preparing for eCommerce, as well as the integration of existing or the bundling into new, more comprehensive services (e.g.: unified-messaging-solutions).
  • Premium, customized business solutions:
    • Online distribution multi channel solution (seekda! connect)
    • Conference and congress management tool (seekda! conferences)
    • The first web service search engine worldwide
  • seekda! uses technologies and provides innovation in the following areas:
    • Service Oriented Architectures
    • Web of Services
    • Web Services Search Engine
    • Semantics and Service Commerce

Service Oriented Architectures

  • IT solutions shift from monolithic systems towards Service Oriented Architectures
  • Organizations require on-demand external services
  • Interface vs. Implementation
    • I only do care about interface (description) but do not care about implementation (program) as somebody does it for me
  • However, current services market:
    • still not transparent
    • provider and/or technology centric
    • mainly atomic services and not bundles/solutions
    • low technical quality of interfaces, high setup and migration costs

Service Oriented Architectures (cont')

  • Current change: Web of pages → Web of services
    • there is already a considerable number of publicly available services
    • …but users need to be aware of the existence and the features of a service 
      • UDDI standard did not prevail
      • Specific portals: access to restricted sets of registered services

Web Services Search Engine

  • Search Engine for Web Services
    • fully automated focused crawling process
    • aggregating information from multiple sources into a semantic model
    • efficient means for finding services
    • community features enabling understanding and selecting right services

Web Service Search Engine (cont')

Focused Crawling

  • Core Issues
    • Good seed URLs
    • Assign score for resource content
    • Guess content based on URI pattern
  • Things to look after:
    • IP politeness
    • spam/crawler traps
    • bandwidth, storage, cpu, ...
  • Divide and Conquer
    • Partition URLs to multiple machines
    • Separate Frontier to multiple queues


Crawling Architecture

  • Collect meta data automatically from various source
  • Create Object based search for services

Analyzing Data

  • http://seekda.com/providers/amazon.com/S3 
  • Amazon S3 provides a simple web services interface that can be used to store and retrieve any amount of data, http://www.amazon.com/gp/browse.html?node=16427261 
  • Commercial Service, Computing
  • Pricing
    $0.15 per GB-Month of storage used http://calculator.s3.amazonaws.com/calc5.html 
  • Terms of Service
  • Related Services
    • boxNetStorage (box.net)
    • OnlineStorage (digitalbucket.com)

Web Services Domains

Service Commerce

  • How to enable Service Commerce – towards a Web Service Marketplace
    • one-stop-shopping across multiple service providers
    • aggregation & mediation - create service bundles according to users needs
    • provide applications that utilize services (or service bundles) e.g. on-demand printing services, conference organization, etc.
    • combine services while checking technical and contractual compatibilities
    • technical integration simplified by using semantic technologies

The Semantic Magic – What is needed?

  • Discovery
    • Automated focused crawling 
    • Aggregating information from multiple sources into semantic model
    • High quality without relying on manually maintained registry
  • Mediation
    • Service interfaces are mapped to ontologies
    • Mapping rules specified on a semantic level
    • Enables runtime exchange of similar services
  • Bundling/Composition
    • Semantic descriptions enable semi-automatic creation
    • Technical service integration done by marketplace
    • Consuming a bundle as easy as an atomic service


Composition – the Process

Mediation & Bundling Example

  • There are many equivalent services capable to fulfil a goal of a customer (e.g. sending SMS)
  • Every provider uses its own format to represent SMS service – mediation is then required
  • Benefits for customer: always the best (the most suitable) service is selected for invocation

Software as a Service (SaaS)

  • "Software deployed as a hosted service and accessed over the Internet” (Microsoft)
  • SaaS applications are typically contrasted with on-premise applications
  • Network tends to mean the Internet, leveraging Web technologies tends to be essential

SaaS - Business Case for Providers

  • Reduce the substantial costs of code delivery to the customer
  • Expand the potential customer base
  • Revamp traditional business models to a more Internet focused approach
  • Offer better online services and information to customers
  • Limit the costs of configuring software for customers, suppliers and internal users

SaaS - Business Case for Customers

  • Why buy when you can rent?
  • Transforming IT departments from application developers to application users
  • Greater flexibility and scalability
  • An expectation for unleashing new value of previously isolated data silos and functionality

Why seekda! connect

  • Hotels use various distribution channels.
  • Daily maintenance of right balance of rooms availability across multiple channels does not scale. 
  • Average time for hoteliers required to maintain a profile of a medium size hotel at one portal takes between 5 to 15 minutes a day.
  • An effort of maintaining hotel’s profile on 10 portals would require then at least 2 hours of work.